The triple jump, commonly referred to as the hop, step, and leap, is a track and field competition. Together, the long jump and triple jump are known to as “Horizontal Jumps.” In this competition, competitors run down a runway before jumping from the take-off board, landing on their takeoff foot, then taking a stride with their other foot before jumping into the sandpit.
According to the historical accounts of the ancient Olympic Games, there were sometimes fifteen-meter or longer leaps. The sports historians came to the conclusion that there must have been a succession of leaps that served as the foundation for the triple jump as a result of this.
Furthermore, there is no confirmed proof that the event was part of the ancient Olympics, with the exception of the writers of the triumph songs who described some of the elements of it.
Triple Jump (Athletic Game) History
In 1896 in Athens, Greece, the triple jump was a competition in the first modern Olympics. Despite the fact that at the time, the event included two hops with the same foot before a leap. But in 1908, the new hop, skip, and jump format became adopted.
James Connolly, an American athlete and author, won the triple jump competition to become the first modern Olympic champion. Later in 1996, the Atlanta Olympic Games included the women’s triple jump event. In 2004 in Athens, Greece, Francoise Mbango won the gold and made history by being the first female athlete from Cameroon to take home an Olympic medal.
Between 1968 and 1976, the Soviet Union’s Viktor Saneyev won three consecutive Olympic gold medals in the men’s triple jump, while the United States’ Christian Taylor won gold in 2012 and 2016.
Triple Jump Rules
The International Association for Athletics Federations (“IAAF“) is the authority for developing and enforcing the triple jump rules & regulations.
- An approach run, a hop, a stride, and a leap make up the triple jump. A foul is committed if the athlete misses any of them.
- The athlete can leap from the take-off board or behind it but cannot jump beyond it.
- If an athlete hits the ground beyond the take-off board during their leap, it is a foul.
- A foul is committed if the player returns through the landing area.
- The distance should be calculated from the takeoff point to the heels’ backs or the closest point to the sand (that is the impression made on the sand).
- Even so, it is ruled a foul if the takeoff occurs while touching the red plasticine board.
- In the event of a foul, the judges shall display a red flag, and in the event of a right leap, a white flag.
- A bad leap counts as an attempt as well.
These are some of the general and compulsory rules to be followed in the athletic game of Triple Jump.
Triple Jump Rules Technique
The way a triple jumper moves is quite similar to how a small kid plays hop scotch. Before landing in the pit, an athlete must launch, land on the same leg, then land on the next opposite leg. Many of the traits that the long jump exhibits throughout the approach are also present in this event.
Good triple jumpers will launch at a far flatter angle than in the long jump, but that is where the similarities stop. We’ll look at the technical specifications, how to build them, how to set up the training week and day.
In the triple jump, there are two Highest Allowable Speed No. 3 Takeoff and the Hop The fourth step, the fifth jump, and the landing.
Increased Speed And Maximum Controllable Acceleration
By focusing on technique and strength, one may swiftly accelerate (starting and explosive). In the triple jump technique, 2 or 3 right/left steps or 4-6 total steps are needed to reach the top speed.
Your athletes will reach peak speed more quickly the slower they are. Your quicker athletes will need more time to reach their top pace.
The subsequent stages are carried out as quickly as is manageable. Success depends on maintaining this pace and an erect stance at the finish of the approach.
Drills for Acceleration
Series on Wall
- Place your athlete in the starting position with their hands up against a wall or fence and their body leaning 45 degrees from one leg up. Adapt them as necessary. Ask them to “feel” a straight line connecting their head, shoulders, hips, knees, and feet. Continue the exercise without lining up the athlete.
- Starting in position A, have the athlete take three to five steps in place (walking, marching, and then running), paying attention to where their feet land. Observe and cue the straight line repeatedly from head to toe.
- Have the athlete continue the exercise while staying in alignment and progressively erecting himself with each foot contact until they are standing.
- Have the athlete start in the same leaning position while being supported at the shoulders by a partner’s hands.
- Perform a five-step start, starting with a march and working up to a push.
- Repetition of the whole effort began, but at the fifth step, the partner will stand aside to enable the athlete to keep going faster.
- The athlete is free to accelerate on their own after establishing the proper lean on the partner. This set of exercises may also be performed while using a towel, belt, or harness as rear resistance.
The Rocking Start Technique
Starting with their takeoff foot in front, the athlete will then rock back until most of their weight is on the back leg. When they push out of this posture and “rock” back over their front leg, make sure they swing their arms counterclockwise to the swing of their legs.
The earth should be struck horizontally by all forces. The athlete may utilise the momentum created by the rock to help with the start if they begin in this way. It contributes to ensuring a solid, consistent start that results in an accurate approach.
Cues for Coaching Acceleration Work
Push while slanting your ankle. Tell the athlete to take their time as they carry out this step of the approach, letting the sensation of their feet touching the earth help them rise up.
This trait has been covered in a lot of literature. Running exercises, sprints of varying lengths and intensities, hill running, over speed towing, approaches with or without a takeoff, and other advanced techniques may all be used to improve speed.
The maintaining of posture and pelvic position through to the finish of the approach are the crucial components of speed as they apply to leaps.
Taking Off and HOPing
While rookie athletes survive the landing from their long jump like launch, elite athletes build up the takeoff and initial phase (hop). The majority of newcomers in the triple jump will require persuasion that going through the board is more significant than takeoff height.
With the exception of the heel-to-toe (rocking) ground contact, there shouldn’t be any obvious differences between takeoff and the earlier parts of the approach. It’s a terrific cue to try to rush past the foot when it’s on the board.
The takeoff motion places a strong focus on horizontal movement. Instead of actively “cycling,” let the stretch in the hip flexors prepare the takeoff leg for the step. It is easier to shift to a slower leaping pace by not cycling the leg.
Coaching the free limbs may be fairly complicated, but the simplest advice is to keep them moving as closely to running as you can. Generally speaking, the hop will be the longest of the three stages. It should most crucially establish the step and maintain horizontal motion.
Drills for Takeoff and HOP
Series of Standing Triple Jumps
- Two-legged start – the athlete should begin as though doing a standing long jump. Have the hop foot start the triple jump motion (RRL or LLR) into the pit before you land.
- Takeoff foot start – similar to previous drills, but with the first step forward (takeoff foot) (RRL or LLR).
- Take one more step back when you start walking than you did in step B. (takeoff foot is moving or walking into the jump). Increase the walk-stairs. in’s
3- To 5-Step Approach, hop, and kneel in the pit
This exercise prepares the athlete to maintain the takeoff posture (initially). Swing leg will come forward during landing and departure leg will come back (lunge position).
The takeoff leg is then moved into position for the step’s landing. The takeoff leg will come down first, followed by the swing leg.
Approaches, short and full, with and without a hop
Both full and short approaches may be used for run throughs without a takeoff. In order to avoid having athletes land on the runway, do any hops from the closest board to the pit. Spikes should be used for these.
The most crucial thing is to get athletes in position for the step. By concentrating on the approach and hop, most of this is accomplished. It takes some preparation to get the athlete ready for this critical change.
The general coaching advice is to keep your horizontal speed up and to remain patient (wait for the ground to come to you). The rocking full foot contact mentioned in the previous steps is the greatest way to make contact.
In Position Series
- Hop with one leg extended fully as you make contact with the ground.
- After fully extending into the ground, the athlete will then kick their butt.
- The performer will then kick their butt and bend their knee.
- Lastly, they will start to advance about one foot at a time. Athletes need to study this remedial series to be ready for the pressures they will experience on a complete leap, even though stretch reflexes will eventually set up a large portion of this sequence.
Run and Walk in Bounding Series
Utilize any Right and Left combination when walking or making short approaches. Favorite movements include LLLLR, LLLR, and LLRR (for left foot takeoff).
Small boxes (6-18″) may be utilised at various points in the sequence to test the athlete, depending on the quality of athletes you have.
Jumps from a short distance with a knee landing
Perform the hop and step with a knee landing and a very short approach with the right foot front and the left knee back (for left foot takeoff). Athletes should run as swiftly as they can from that distance while doing any short approach practise.
Make a point of standing up straight as soon as possible so that posture exercises are reinforced. Prior to takeoff, no chopped or extended steps should be employed.
The athlete has slowed down significantly at this stage of the leap. The jump’s success depends on the body making touch with the ground below it. As a result, the athlete may continue to apply forces horizontally and decrease deceleration. The majority of leap phase practise will be combined with other phase activities.
If this area is isolated, the athlete could prepare for a takeoff similar to a long jump. The athlete may get a sense of what will happen during this phase by doing a few “weak leg” long leaps.
After some step practise, further single-leg hopping is a fantastic approach for the athlete to align themselves during this phase. An example would be a left foot takeoff, such as LLRRR or LLRR.
Triple Jump Track/Field
A triple jump track is made out of a runway path, a starting line marker, and a sand pit that is 14 feet from the takeoff line. Athletes race towards the takeoff point before performing the hop, step, and leap motions sequentially. The proper foot sequence must be used to execute all three components of the triple jump. The initial leap should be landed with the same foot that was used for takeoff. The third leap must be landed with both feet together, while the second jump must land on the opposite foot.
The leap is ruled invalid if the athlete fails the foot sequence or goes beyond the takeoff mark. Each athlete is given six tries, and the winner is the one who jumps the furthest.
Olympic triple jump competitions are held for both men and women. Competitions for the triple jump are held at all major sports events, including world championships.
Triple Jump Measurement
The closer edge of the landing area in the triple jump must be at least 36 feet (11 metres) away from the foul line for men and 27.89 feet (8.5 metres) away from the foul line for women. It is advised to keep a distance of 32 feet (10 metres) and 26 feet (8 metres), respectively.
Triple Jump World Record
With 15.67 metres, Yulimar Rojas owns the triple jump world record. Yulimar Rojas of Venezuela finally broke the world record set in 1995 by the Ukrainian Inessa Kravets with a huge, last-ditch jump of 15.67 metres to win the Olympic gold.